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Tobacco kills more than 7 million people each year. More than 6 million of those deaths are the result of direct tobacco use while around 890 000 are the result of non-smokers being exposed to second-hand smoke. 1 billion smokers live in low- and middle-income countries. 1 billion smokers worldwide live in low- and middle-income countries, where the burden of tobacco-related illness and death is heaviest. Tobacco users who die prematurely deprive their families was Ist Passive Income income, raise the cost of health care and hinder economic development.

In some countries, children from poor households are frequently employed in tobacco farming to provide family income. These children are especially vulnerable to “green tobacco sickness”, which is caused by the nicotine that is absorbed through the skin from the handling of wet tobacco leaves. Surveillance is key Good monitoring tracks the extent and character of the tobacco epidemic and indicates how best to tailor policies. There are more than 4000 chemicals in tobacco smoke, of which at least 250 are known to be harmful and more than 50 are known to cause cancer. There is no safe level of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke.

In adults, second-hand smoke causes serious cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, including coronary heart disease and lung cancer. In infants, it causes sudden death. In pregnant women, it causes low birth weight. Almost half of children regularly breathe air polluted by tobacco smoke in public places. Second-hand smoke causes more than 890 000 premature deaths per year. Every person should be able to breathe tobacco-smoke-free air. Smoke-free laws protect the health of non-smokers, are popular, do not harm business and encourage smokers to quit.

Among smokers who are aware of the dangers of tobacco, most want to quit. Counselling and medication can more than double the chance that a smoker who tries to quit will succeed. Graphic warnings can persuade smokers to protect the health of non-smokers by smoking less inside the home and avoiding smoking near children. Studies carried out after the implementation of pictorial package warnings in Brazil, Canada, Singapore and Thailand consistently show that pictorial warnings significantly increase people’s awareness of the harms of tobacco use. Mass media campaigns can also reduce tobacco consumption by influencing people to protect non-smokers and convincing youths to stop using tobacco.

43 countries that have aired at least 1 strong anti-tobacco mass media campaign within the last 2 years. Even so, high tobacco taxes is a measure that is rarely implemented. Tobacco tax revenues are on average 250 times higher than spending on tobacco control, based on available data. These activities range from legal actions, such as purchasing tobacco products in lower tax jurisdictions, to illegal ones such as smuggling, illicit manufacturing and counterfeiting. The tobacco industry and others often argue that high tobacco product taxes lead to tax evasion. However, the evidence shows that non-tax factors including weak governance, high levels of corruption, poor government commitment to tackling illicit tobacco, ineffective customs and tax administration, and informal distribution channels for tobacco products are often of equal or greater importance. There is broad agreement that control of illicit trade benefits tobacco control and public health and result in broader benefits for governments.

Critically, this will reduce premature deaths from tobacco use and raise tax revenue for governments. Stopping illicit trade in tobacco products is a health priority, and is achievable. But to do so requires improvement of national and sub-national tax administration systems and international collaboration. While publicly stating its support for action against the illicit trade, the tobacco industry’s behind-the-scenes behaviour has been very different. Internal industry documents released as a result of court cases demonstrate that the tobacco industry has actively fostered the illicit trade globally.

It also works to block implementation of tobacco control measures, such as tax increases and pictorial health warnings, by misleadingly arguing they will fuel the illicit trade. Experience from many countries demonstrate that illicit trade can be successfully addressed even when tobacco taxes and prices are raised, resulting in increased tax revenues and reduced tobacco use. Implementing and enforcing strong measures to control illicit trade enhances the effectiveness of significantly increased tobacco taxes and prices, as well as strong tobacco control policies, in reducing tobacco use and its health and economic consequences. The WHO FCTC is a milestone in the promotion of public health. It is an evidence-based treaty that reaffirms the right of people to the highest standard of health, provides legal dimensions for international health cooperation and sets high standards for compliance. In 2008, WHO introduced a practical, cost-effective way to scale up implementation of the main demand reduction provisions of the WHO FCTC on the ground: MPOWER.

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Each MPOWER measure corresponds to at least 1 provision of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. For more details on progress made for tobacco control at global, regional and country level, please refer to the series of WHO reports on the global tobacco epidemic. It would also criminalize illicit production and cross-border smuggling. Fach- und Alltagssprache der Entwicklungspolitik und genießt hohe Bekanntheit. Dualität zwischen Entwicklungsländern und entwickelten Ländern weniger bedeutend.

Alle Länder, auch Deutschland, werden zu Entwicklungsländern, denn alle müssen sich weiterentwickeln, um die globalen Nachhaltigkeitsziele zu erreichen. Kernkonzept der modernen Welt, das eine quasi naturgesetzliche Veränderung zu einem angeblich besseren Endzustand suggeriere. Einer der prominentesten Kritiker aus diesem Lager ist der schwedische Ökonom Gunnar Myrdal. Diese Begriffe erschienen zum ersten Mal im UNO-Programm von 1949, sind jedoch stark wertbehaftet und können von den Bewohnern der betroffenen Länder als verletzend empfunden werden. International gibt es keine eindeutige Sprachregelung. Im deutschen Sprachgebrauch besteht das Problem der Übersetzbarkeit der Begriffe. Das BMZ verwendet beispielsweise diese Bezeichnung.

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