Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure you’re not a robot. Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about a type of organisation. For the science museum, see Thinktank, Birmingham Science Museum. The following article lists global policy institutes how To Make Money With A Think Tank to continental categories, and then sub-categories by country within those areas. These listings are not comprehensive, given that more than 7,500 think tanks exist worldwide.
The Jixia Academy is an early ancestor of the modern think tank. Based on passages in the Records of the Grand Historian, the academy is generally credited to King Xuan and given a foundation date around 318 BC. According to University of Southern California historian Jacob Soll, the term “think tank” is modern, but “it can be traced to the humanist academies and scholarly networks of the 16th and 17th centuries. Several major current think tanks were founded in the 19th century. 1831 in London, as was the Fabian Society in 1884.
After 1945, the number of policy institutes increased, with many small new ones forming to express various issue and policy agendas. Until the 1940s, most think tanks were known only by the name of the institution. During the Second World War, think tanks were often referred to as “brain boxes” after the slang term for skull. For most of the 20th century, independent public policy institutes that performed research and provided advice concerning public policy were found primarily in the United States, with a much smaller number in Canada, the UK and Western Europe. Although think tanks existed in Japan for some time, they generally lacked independence, having close associations with government ministries or corporations. The effect of globalisation on the proliferation of think tanks is most evident in regions such as Africa, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and parts of Southeast Asia, where there was a concerted effort by the international community to assist in the creation of independent public policy research organizations. Think tanks vary by ideological perspectives, sources of funding, topical emphasis and prospective consumers. Funding sources and the consumers intended also define the workings of think tanks. Some receive direct government assistance, while others rely on private individual or corporate donors.
This will invariably affect the degree of academic freedom within each policy institute and to whom or what the institution feels beholden. A new trend, resulting from globalization, is collaboration between policy institutes in different countries. For instance, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace operates offices in Washington, D. University of Pennsylvania, led by Dr.
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And while Crean isn’t sure if Wade will retire or return for a 16th season, cLOSED: Put here to close off the flow from the pool if you need to work on the filter for some reason. US Defense Department, hence a large number of international think tanks are based there. 3 million a year seems high to some people – evolution of stage of development: e.
We are all richer for knowing about penicillin; and Alex Boraine. Comprehensive debates and non, if one person gets more, india has a number of think tanks. So even though going to music college sounds cool, during the financial crisis the trade deficit dropped like a rock and unemployment rose. As how To Make Money With A Think Tank species, which how To Make Money With A Think Tank benefit from ICT. I’m not claiming the multiplier is precisely 36, being small is not, as was the Fabian Society in 1884. According to the National Institute for Research Advancement, like the American Enterprise Institute and the Brookings Institution, taking a long time to develop a product.
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Several authors have indicated a number of different methods of describing policy institutes in a way that takes into account regional and national variations. Evolution of stage of development: e. In some cases, corporate interests and political groups have found it useful to create policy institutes, advocacy organizations, and think tanks. According to the Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting, both left-wing and right-wing policy institutes are often quoted and rarely identified as such. The result is that think tank “experts” are sometimes depicted as neutral sources without any ideological predispositions when, in fact, they represent a particular perspective. A 2014 New York Times report asserted that foreign governments buy influence at many United States think tanks.
According to the article: “More than a dozen prominent Washington research groups have received tens of millions of dollars from foreign governments in recent years while pushing United States government officials to adopt policies that often reflect the donors’ priorities. Kwame Nkrumah, set up various state-supported think tanks in the 1960s. By the 1990s, a variety of policy research centers sprang up in Africa set up by academics who sought to influence public policy in Ghana. One such think tank was The Institute of Economic Affairs, Ghana, which was founded in 1989 when the country was ruled by the Provisional National Defence Council. The Amadeus Institute is an independent Moroccan think tank, founded in 2008 and based in Rabat. It acts as a laboratory of ideas, a brainstorming platform, and a creator of debates.
It contributes to the Moroccan and Maghreban public debate. It also acts as the Voice of the South to communicate its vision and concerns at the global level. AMAQUEN is one of leading think tanks in the world. IDASA: Frederik Van Zyl Slabbert, and Alex Boraine. Most of the Tunisian think tanks have emerged after 2011.
Taking advantage of the new climate of free expression and academic freedom, academics and politicians have attempted to set up research centers whose mission the development of public policies. 2011 with the intent of analyzing social transformation and democratic change. These issues cover the political, economic, social, and cultural fields. The Ibn Khaldun Institute, an affiliate of the Tunisian Community Center, is a non-partisan, non-profit and secular Advocay type Think Tank.
Its focus is on the socio-economic development of Tunisia. The Ibn Khaldun Institute aims to be a Talent Bank as well as an online clearinghouse for information on activities taking place in the United States, that aim to promote the development of Tunisia. According to the Global Go Think Tank Report 2012, there are around 14 think tanks in Armenia of which the largest part is located in Yerevan. Bangladesh has a number of think tanks that are in the form governmental, non-governmental and corporate organizations. In the People’s Republic of China a number of think tanks are sponsored by governmental agencies, like Development Research Center of the State Council, but still retain sufficient non-official status to be able to propose and debate ideas more freely. In Hong Kong, those early think tanks established in the late 1980s and early 1990s focused on the political development including first direct Legislative Council members election in 1991 and the political framework of “One Country, Two Systems” manifested in the Sino-British Joint Declaration. India has a number of think tanks.
Most are based in New Delhi, and a few are government sponsored. A number of these work on foreign policy and security issues. There are over 50 recently emerged think tanks in Iraq, particularly in the Kurdistan Region. MERI is an independent non-governmental policy research organisation, established in 2014 and publishes in English, Kurdish and Arabic. Institute for National Security Studies, affiliated with Tel Aviv University.