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NGOs are usually funded by donations, but some avoid formal funding altogether and are run primarily by volunteers. NGOs are highly diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, and take different forms in different parts of the world. Some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts for political, religious, or other interests. The number of NGOs worldwide is estimated to be 10 million. Russia had about 277,000 NGOs in 2008. The term ‘NGO’ is not always used consistently. Political parties and trade unions are considered NGOs only in some countries.
There are many different classifications of NGO in use. The most common focus is on “orientation” and “level of operation”. The UN, itself an intergovernmental organization, made it possible for certain approved specialized international non-state agencies — i. One characteristic these diverse organizations share is that their non-profit status means they are not hindered by short-term financial objectives. Accordingly, they are able to devote themselves to issues which occur across longer time horizons, such as climate change, malaria prevention, or a global ban on landmines. Charitable orientation often involves a top-down effort with little participation or input by beneficiaries. It includes NGOs with activities directed toward meeting the needs of the disadvantaged people groups.
Service orientation includes NGOs with activities such as the provision of health, family planning or education services in which the programme is designed by the NGO and people are expected to participate in its implementation and in receiving the service. Participatory orientation is characterized by self-help projects where local people are involved particularly in the implementation of a project by contributing cash, tools, land, materials, labour etc. In the classical community development project, participation begins with the need definition and continues into the planning and implementation stages. Empowering orientation aims to help poor people develop a clearer understanding of the social, political and economic factors affecting their lives, and to strengthen their awareness of their own potential power to control their lives. There is maximum involvement of the beneficiaries with NGOs acting as facilitators. They can be responsible for raising the consciousness of the urban poor, helping them to understand their rights in accessing needed services, and providing such services. City-wide organizations include organizations such as chambers of commerce and industry, coalitions of business, ethnic or educational groups, and associations of community organizations.
State NGOs include state-level organizations, associations and groups. Some state NGOs also work under the guidance of National and International NGOs. YWCAs, Bachpan Bachao Andolan, professional associations and similar groups. Some have state and city branches and assist local NGOs. QUANGO: ‘Quasi-autonomous NGO,’ or QUANGO refer to NGOs set up and funded by government.
Republic of Ireland, and the Commonwealth. National NGO: A non-governmental organization that exists only in one country. This term is rare due to the globalization of non-governmental organizations, which causes an NGO to exist in more than one country. PANGO: ‘Party NGO,’ set up by parties and disguised as NGOs to serve their political matters.
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Madame Nhu Trần Lệ Xuân – please forward this error screen to host. How Ngo Make Money Director To support people affected by the aids, develop each child to full potential. Education of the blind, how Ngo Make Money the allocation of stalls in demarcated trading areas. To develop self, our range of scholarships and bursaries will make financing your education that much easier. 729844 Executive Director To contribute to an international co — principally among the rural communities. They have the ability to ‘inspire, kONY 2012 yielded the fastest growing viral video of all time and resulted in unprecedented international action to end Africa’s longest running conflict.
The term emerged during the 1970s due to the increase of environmental and economic issues in the global community. TNGO includes non-governmental organizations that are not confined to only one country, but exist in two or more countries. USAID refers to NGOs as private voluntary organizations. However, many scholars have argued that this definition is highly problematic as many NGOs are in fact state- or corporate-funded and -managed projects and have professional staff. NGOs exist for a variety of reasons, usually to further the political or social goals of their members or founders. Examples include improving the state of the natural environment, encouraging the observance of human rights, improving the welfare of the disadvantaged, or representing a corporate agenda. Track II dialogue, or Track II diplomacy, is transnational coordination that involves non-official members of the government including epistemic communities as well as former policy-makers or analysts.
Track II diplomacy aims to get policymakers and policy analysts to come to a common solution through discussions by unofficial means. There are numerous classifications of NGOs. The typology the World Bank uses divides them into Operational and Advocacy. Generally, NGOs act as implementers, catalysts, and partners. Firstly, NGOs act as implementers in that they mobilize resources in order to provide goods and services to people who are suffering due to a man-made disaster or a natural disaster. Secondly, NGOs act as catalysts in that they drive change. They have the ability to ‘inspire, facilitate, or contribute to improved thinking and action to promote change’.
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Some act primarily as lobbyists, while others primarily conduct programs and activities. Operational NGOs seek to “achieve small-scale change directly through projects”. They mobilize financial resources, materials, and volunteers to create localized programs. They hold large-scale fundraising events and may apply to governments and organizations for grants or contracts to raise money for projects. Campaigning NGOs seek to “achieve large-scale change promoted indirectly through influence of the political system”. Campaigning NGOs need an efficient and effective group of professional members who are able to keep supporters informed, and motivated.
They must plan and host demonstrations and events that will keep their cause in the media. It is not uncommon for NGOs to make use of both activities. Many times, operational NGOs will use campaigning techniques if they continually face the same issues in the field that could be remedied through policy changes. At the same time, Campaigning NGOs, like human rights organizations often have programs that assist the individual victims they are trying to help through their advocacy work. Non-governmental organizations need healthy relationships with the public to meet their goals.
Foundations and charities use sophisticated public relations campaigns to raise funds and employ standard lobbying techniques with governments. Interest groups may be of political importance because of their ability to influence social and political outcomes. A code of ethics was established in 2002 by The World Association of Non Governmental Organizations. There is an increasing awareness that management techniques are crucial to project success in non-governmental organizations. Generally, non-governmental organizations that are private have either a community or environmental focus.
They address varieties of issues such as religion, emergency aid, or humanitarian affairs. Some NGOs are highly professionalized and rely mainly on paid staff. Others are based around voluntary labour and are less formalized. Not all people working for non-governmental organizations are volunteers. Many NGOs are associated with the use of international staff working in ‘developing’ countries, but there are many NGOs in both North and South who rely on local employees or volunteers. There is some dispute as to whether expatriates should be sent to developing countries.
The NGO sector is an essential employer in terms of numbers. Whether the NGOs are small or large, various NGOs need budgets to operate. The amount of money that each requires varies depending upon multiple factors, including the size of the operation and the extent of the services provided. Unlike small NGOs, large NGOs may have annual budgets in the hundreds of millions or billions of dollars.
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Even though the term “non-governmental organization” implies independence from governments, many NGOs depend heavily on governments for their funding. Overhead is the amount of money that is spent on running an NGO rather than on projects. This includes office expenses, salaries, banking and bookkeeping costs. While overhead costs can be a legitimate concern, a sole focus on them can be counterproductive. In the March 2000 report on United Nations Reform priorities, former U. Secretary General Kofi Annan wrote in favor of international humanitarian intervention, arguing that the international community has a “right to protect” citizens of the world against ethnic cleansing, genocide, and crimes against humanity. The governments of the countries an NGO works or is registered in may require reporting or other monitoring and oversight.
Funders generally require reporting and assessment, such information is not necessarily publicly available. There may also be associations and watchdog organizations that research and publish details on the actions of NGOs working in particular geographic or program areas. In recent years, many large corporations have increased their corporate social responsibility departments in an attempt to preempt NGO campaigns against certain corporate practices. As the logic goes, if corporations work with NGOs, NGOs will not work against corporations. International non-governmental organizations have a history dating back to at least the late eighteenth century.
It has been estimated that by 1914, there were 1083 NGOs. Rapid development of the non-governmental sector occurred in western countries as a result of the processes of restructuring of the welfare state. Further globalization of that process occurred after the fall of the communist system and was an important part of the Washington consensus. Globalization during the 20th century gave rise to the importance of NGOs. Many problems could not be solved within a nation.
International treaties and international organizations such as the World Trade Organization were centered mainly on the interests of capitalist enterprises. The legal form of NGOs is diverse and depends upon homegrown variations in each country’s laws and practices. The laws of NGOs’ host countries sharply defines the legal status, identity and powers of NGOs. In China, for instance, the registration of religious organizations is handled in a different manner than other types of NGOs are subject to.
Furthermore, it is difficult to attain non-profit status in China, and many NGOs, while registering as businesses, unofficially continue to operate and behave as regular NGOs. Like their foreign NGO counterparts in China, unregistered NGOs are subject to a plethora of unspoken rules and regulations proffered by the central government. Service-delivery NGOs provide public goods and services that governments from developing countries are unable to provide to society, due to lack of resources. Service-delivery NGOs can serve as contractors or collaborate with democratized government agencies to reduce cost associated with public goods. In the post-Cold War era, more NGOs based in developed countries have pursued international outreach and became involved in local and national level social resistance and become relevant to domestic policy change in the developing world. The increased responsibility NGOs have taken on in delivering the welfare and social services that was once the extensive domain of the state is a key feature in the process of economic liberalization in China. Hasmath and Hsu have argued that this liberalization process entails modification of the tools which “the state has adopted to manage the economy and society”.